2017 February 06
2017 April 19
The loss of particles due to highly inelastic reactions has previously been taken into account in effective field theories for low-energy particles by adding local anti-Hermitian terms to the effective Hamiltonian. An additional modification is required in the time evolution equation for the density matrix of a multi-particle system. An effective density matrix can be defined by tracing over states containing high-momentum particles produced by the highly inelastic reactions and by a time average that eliminates short-time correlations. The effective density matrix satisfies the Lindblad equation, with local Lindblad operators that are determined by the anti-Hermitian terms in the effective Hamiltonian.