Open Effective Field Theories from Highly Inelastic Reactions
E. Braaten, H.W. Hammer, G.P. Lepage
The loss of particles due to highly inelastic reactions has previously been taken into account in effective field theories for low-energy particles by adding local anti-Hermitian terms to the effective Hamiltonian. An additional modification is required in the time evolution equation for the density matrix of a multi-particle system. An effective density matrix can be defined by tracing over states containing high-momentum particles produced by the highly inelastic reactions and by a time average that eliminates short-time correlations. The effective density matrix satisfies the Lindblad equation, with local Lindblad operators that are determined by the anti-Hermitian terms in the effective Hamiltonian.