A Prototype of a New Generation Readout ASIC in 65 nm CMOS for Pixel Detectors at HL-LHC
2017 June 14
2017 August 03
The foreseen High-Luminosity upgrade at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will constitute a new frontier for particle physics after year 2024, demanding for the installation of new silicon pixel detectors able to withstand unprecedented track densities and radiation levels in the inner tracking systems of current general-purpose experiments. This paper describes the implementation of a new-generation pixel chip demonstrator using a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology and targeting HL-LHC specifications. It was designed
as part of the Italian INFN CHIPIX65 project and in close synergy with the international CERN RD53 collaboration on 65 nm CMOS.
The prototype is composed of a matrix of 64×64 pixels with 50 μm × 50 μm cells featuring a compact design, low-noise and low-power performance. The pixel array integrates two different analogue front-end architectures working in parallel, one with asynchronous and one with synchronous hit discriminators. Common characteristics are a compact layout able to fit into half the pixel size, low-noise performance (ENC < 100 e− RMS for 50 fF input capacitance), below
5 μW/pixel power consumption, linear charge measurements up to 30 ke− input charge using Time-over-Threshold (ToT) encoding and leakage current compensation up to 50 nA per pixel. A novel region-based digital architecture has been designed in order to ensure > 99% efficiency for expected 3 GHz/cm2 hit rate, 1 MHz trigger rate and 12.5 μs trigger latency at HL-LHC. Pixels have been organized into regions of 4×4 cells and a common synthesized logic shared among all pixels provides a centralized memory for latency buffering, performs the trigger matching and handles the local configuration. The simulated particle inefficiency for this architecture is below 0.1% under nominal HL-LHC conditions.
All global biases and voltages required by analogue front-ends are generated on-chip using 10-bit programmable DACs. Bias currents and voltages can be monitored by a 12-bit ADC. A bandgap voltage reference circuit provides a stable reference voltage for all these blocks. The readout of triggered data is based on replicated FIFOs placed at the chip periphery. Data are finally sent off-chip with 8b/10b encoding using a high-speed serializer. Triggerless and debug
operating modes are also supported. Chip configuration and slow-control are performed through fully-duplex synchronous Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) master/slave transactions. The I/O interface uses custom-designed JEDEC-compliant SLVS transmitters and receivers. All blocks and analogue front-ends have been silicon-proven during a previous prototyping phase and were demonstrated to be radiation tolerant up to 580 Mrad Total Ionizing Dose (TID) or beyond. The CHIPIX65 demonstrator was submitted for fabrication on July 2016. It was received back from the foundry on October 2016 and preliminary experimental characterizations started.