Radio Frequency identification (RFID) has integrated a wide range of applications for the identification and traceability of benefits. The tag collision remains a major drawback in radio-
frequency identification systems, especially in large-scale ones. Thus it is critical to establish algorithms on the basis of hardware to realize accurate and efficient identification to optimize the system. Based on the analysis of query tree and dynamic frame time slot ALOHA algorithm, a prioritized layered RFID anti-collision algorithm is presented as an improved method to solve these problems for the library circumstance. The query count, transmission delay, throughput rate and other performance indicators are compared between those algorithms to evaluate the effectiveness of this algorithm. As indicated by the simulation results, it has less collision probability than DFSA and less queries than QT with transmission delay increased to a certain extent, showing better performance and scalability in the large amount of tags like the library management.