Charge-sign dependent modulation of cosmic ray electrons and positrons up to extreme solar maximum conditions
J.L. Raath, M. Potgieter
The charge-sign dependent modulation of cosmic rays is an important topic in solar modulation studies, providing insights into gradient, curvature, and current sheet drifts. Such studies, at higher levels of solar activity, have always been associated with challenges due to the limitations of numerical modulation models. We employ a
three-dimensional numerical model based on stochastic differential equations and, owing to the numerical stability of this model, avoid such limitations at solar maximum conditions. We are therefore able to model results up to extreme solar maximum conditions, including the period of time over which the polarity reversal in the solar magnetic field takes place. We use our model to illustrate the effects of the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet that changes over the course of the solar activity cycle, and also discuss the effects when this is accompanied by a corresponding change in the
magnitude of the heliospheric magnetic field. Given the results shown in this progress report, we expect our model to be able to reproduce recent data from AMS-02 and PAMELA, as well as provide us with useful predictions regarding the extent of drift effects during the next solar cycle.