Theoretical perspective for the future experiments on parton densities
2018 September 20
2018 November 23
I explain the current status of parton-distribution-function (PDF) studies and future experimental prospects on their determinations. First, unpolarized PDFs of the nucleon are introduced as a field of precision QCD physics including higher-order $\alpha_s$ corrections. Second, nuclear PDFs and polarized nucleonic PDFs are discussed. Third, the determination of fragmentation functions is explained. Forth, the three-dimensional (3D) structure functions are discussed in connection with the origin of the nucleon spin and gravitational form factors of hadrons. By the 3D structure functions, gravitational sources and the origin of nucleon mass could be clarified in the microscopic level of quarks and gluons. Furthermore, 3D structure studies of hadrons could be used for clarifying internal structure of exotic hadron candidates, nuclear composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and color-entanglement phenomena. The PDF field will be developed further along with progress in other fields of science.