Neutrino astronomy has seen tremendous progress over recent years with the discovery of a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV–PeV energy range and the first compelling evidence of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars. Neutrinos are unique cosmic messengers that allow to discover and characterize the most energetic non-thermal sources in the Universe.
We consider the possibility of observing transient neutrino sources in the GeV–TeV energy range, where neutrino telescopes are limited by atmospheric backgrounds. The production of these intermediate-energy neutrinos likely proceeds via proton interactions with ambient matter in the source and with the surrounding background gas. We study the production of GeV–TeV neutrinos based on GEANT4 simulations. We also investigate the impact of high-density environments on the development of particle cascades and secondary neutrino spectra.