Time dependence of the proton and helium fluxes measured by PAMELA during solar minimum (2006 - 2009)
July 22, 2019
July 02, 2021
Precision measurements of the Z = 2 component in the cosmic radiation provide crucial infor-mation about both the origin and propagation of the helium nuclei in cosmic rays inside theGalaxy. Moreover, the precise measurement of the time-dependent helium nuclei fluxes allowsan in-depth study of the solar modulation of such nuclei. These results can be compared with thewidely studied modulation of protons, to possibly spot dependencies on particle’s charge, mass orlocal interstellar spectra shape. The helium differential fluxes together with comparison betweenhelium and proton energy spectra, measured by the PAMELA experiment down to 80 MeV, hasbeen studied in the unusually long minimum of solar cycle 23 (July 2006 December 2009) overa 1-month time basis.
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