Collective Hadronization and Air Showers: Can LHC Data Solve the Muon Puzzle ?
July 22, 2019
July 02, 2021
The deficit of muons in the simulation of extensive air showers is a long standing problem and the origin of large uncertainties in the reconstruction of the mass of the high energy primary cosmic rays. Hadronic interaction models re-tuned after early LHC data have a more consistent description of the muon content among them but still disagree with data. Collective hadronization due to the formation of a quark gluon plasma (QGP) has already been studied as a possible reason for a larger production of muons under extreme conditions (rare, very central nuclear interactions), but without real success. Because of its different ratio of electromagnetic to hadronic energy, a QGP may have the properties to solve the muon puzzle in particular in the view of the most recent LHC data. It is demonstrated using a theoretical approach and tested in a realistic way by the modification of the EPOS model to produce a QGP also in not so extreme conditions with a possible large impact on air shower physics.
How to cite
Metadata are provided both in "article" format (very similar to INSPIRE) as this helps creating
very compact bibliographies which can be beneficial to authors and
readers, and in "proceeding" format
which is more detailed and complete.