Where do AMS-02 anti-helium events come from?
We discuss the origin of the anti-helium-3 and -4 events possibly detected by AMS-02. Using up-to-date semi-analytical tools, we show that spallation from primary hydrogen and helium nuclei onto the ISM predicts a anti-helium-3 flux typically one to two orders of magnitude below the sensitivity of AMS-02 after 5 years, and a anti-helium-4 flux roughly 5 orders of magnitude below the AMS-02 sensitivity. We argue that dark matter annihilations face similar difficulties in explaining this event. We then entertain the possibility that these events originate from anti-matter-dominated regions in the form of anti-clouds or anti-stars. In the case of anti-clouds, we show how the isotopic ratio of anti-helium nuclei might suggest that BBN has happened in an inhomogeneous manner, resulting in anti-regions with a anti-baryon-to-photon ratio of one in a thousand of the baryon-to-photon ratio. We discuss properties of these regions, as well as relevant constraints on the presence of anti-clouds in our Galaxy. We present constraints from the survival of anti-clouds in the Milky-Way and in the early Universe, as well as from gamma-ray observations. In particular, these require the anti-clouds to be almost free of normal matter. We also discuss an alternative where anti-domains are dominated by surviving anti-stars. We suggest that part of the unindentified sources in the 3FGL catalog can originate from anti-clouds or anti-stars. AMS-02 and GAPS data could further probe this scenario.
How to cite
Metadata are provided both in "article" format (very similar to INSPIRE) as this helps creating
very compact bibliographies which can be beneficial to authors and
readers, and in "proceeding" format
which is more detailed and complete.