PoS - Proceedings of Science
Volume 390 - 40th International Conference on High Energy physics (ICHEP2020) - Parallel: Neutrino Physics
The ESSnuSB project
B. Klicek* on behalf of the ESSnuSB Collaboration
*corresponding author
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Pre-published on: January 29, 2021
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Considering the relatively large value of the last measured neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{13}$, the way is now open to observe for the first time a possible CP violation in the leptonic sector. The measured value of $\theta_{13}$ also privileges the $2^\text{nd}$ oscillation maximum for the discovery of CP violation instead of the usually used $1^\text{st}$ oscillation maximum. The sensitivity to the CP violation signal at this $2^\text{nd}$ oscillation maximum is significantly higher than at the $1^\text{st}$ oscillation maximum thereby making the measurement significantly less sensitive to the systematic errors. Going to the $2^\text{nd}$ oscillation maximum necessitates a very intense neutrino beam with the appropriate energy. The world’s most intense pulsed spallation neutron source, the European Spallation Source, will have a proton linac with the unprecedented power of 5 MW and 2 GeV energy. This linac, currently under construction, also has the potential to become the proton driver of the world’s most intense neutrino beam with high potential to discover and well measure a neutrino CP violation. The physics performance of that neutrino Super Beam in conjunction with a megaton underground Water Cherenkov neutrino detector installed at a distance of about 500 km from ESS has been evaluated. In addition, the choice of such detector will extend the physics program to proton–decay, atmospheric neutrinos and astrophysics searches. The ESS proton linac upgrades, the accumulator ring needed for proton pulse compression, the target station optimization, and the physics potential are described. In addition to neutrinos, this facility will also produce at the same time a copious number of muons which could be used by a low energy nuSTORM facility, a Neutrino Factory or/and a muon collider. The ESS neutron facility will be ready by 2025 at which moment the upgrades for the neutrino facility could start.
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