Upgrade of ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC
The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a sampling hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment, with steel as absorber and plastic scintillators as the active medium. The High-Luminosity phase of LHC, HL-LHC, delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity, is expected to begin in 2027. TileCal will require new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger for Level 1 trigger system, higher ambient radiation, and to ensure better performance under high pileup conditions. Both the on- and off-detector TileCal electronics will be replaced during the shutdown of 2024–2027. PMT signal from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signal is reconstructed, stored, and sent to the Level 0 trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system, compared to the current system, where analog trigger sums are used. In addition, it will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. The modular front-end electronics feature radiation-tolerant commercial off-the-shelf components and redundant design to minimise single points of failure. The timing, control and communication interface with the off-detector electronics is implemented with modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and high speed fiber optic links running up to 9.6 Gbps. The TileCal upgrade program has included extensive R&D and test beam studies. A hybrid Demonstrator module which has both new readout architecture and reverse compatibility with the existing system was inserted in ATLAS in August 2019 for testing in actual detector conditions. The ongoing developments for on- and off-detector systems, together with expected performance characteristics and recent results of test-beam campaigns with the electronics prototypes are presented here.
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