PoS - Proceedings of Science
Volume 395 - 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2021) - CRI - Cosmic Ray Indirect
Results on mass composition of cosmic rays as measured with LOFAR
A. Corstanje*, S. Buitink, H. Falcke, B.M. Hare, J.R. Hörandel, T. Huege, G. Krampah, P. Mitra, K. Mulrey, A. Nelles, H. Pandya, J.P. Rachen, O. Scholten, S. Thoudam, G. Trinh, S. ter Veen and T. Winchen
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Pre-published on: July 05, 2021
Published on: March 18, 2022
We present an updated analysis of the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of $10^{16.8}$ to $10^{18.3}$ eV. It is based on measurements with the LOFAR telescope of the depth of shower maximum, $X_{\rm max}$.
We review the improvements to the simulation-based reconstruction setup, as well as the selection method to obtain a minimally biased $X_{\rm max}$ dataset. Results include estimates of the mean and standard deviation of the $X_{\rm max}$ distribution. A statistical analysis at distribution level has been done as well, using a four-component model of light to heavy nuclei. It confirms our previous results showing a significant low-mass fraction in this energy range.
The radio technique has advanced enough that multiple observatories are publishing results on $X_{\rm max}$. As the array layouts and methods vary, it is interesting to compare the approaches, in light of the observed differences in the $X_{\rm max}$ results. We therefore show additional information on bias tests used in the $X_{\rm max}$ reconstruction and sample selection process.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22323/1.395.0322
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