An extensive study for correcting the nonlinear particle density measured by GRAPES-3 scintillator detectors
A. Chandra*, S. Ahmad, M. Chakraborty, S.R. Dugad, U.D. Goswami, S.K. Gupta,
B. Hariharan, Y. Hayashi, P. Jagadeesan, A. Jain, P. Jain, S. Kawakami, H. Kojima, S. Mahapatra, P.K. Mohanty, R. Moharana, Y. Muraki, P.K. Nayak, T. Nonaka, A. Oshima, B.P. Pant, D. Pattanaik, G. Pradhan, P.S. Rakshe, M. Rameez, K. Ramesh, L.V. Reddy, R. Sahoo, R. Scaria, S. Shibata, K. Tanaka, F. Varsi and M. Zuberiet al. (click to show)
August 01, 2021
March 18, 2022
The GRAPES-3 extensive air shower (EAS) array located at Ooty is equipped with 400 plastic scintillator detectors spread over an area of 25000 m$^2$ and a muon telescope of area 560 m$^2$ built with 3,712 proportional counters. One of its principal objectives is to measure the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum in the TeV-PeV energy region. The response of the photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) used in the plastic scintillator detectors becomes nonlinear at densities $>$ 50 particles per m$^2$ in large EAS. We describe a technique to correct for the nonlinearity of these PMTs, thereby extending the dynamic range of the detector for observed particle densities up to 5000 particles per m$^2$. The details of the technique will be presented.
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