Parameterization of muon production profiles in the atmosphere
July 03, 2021
Production of high-energy muons in cosmic-ray air showers, relevant for underground detectors,
depends on the properties of the primary cosmic ray as well as the atmospheric temperature
through the competition between decay and re-interaction of charged pions and kaons. We present
a parameterization of muon production profiles based on simulations as a function of the primary
cosmic-ray energy, mass and zenith angle, the minimum energy for a muon to reach the detector
and an atmospheric temperature profile. We illustrate how this can be used to calculate muon
bundle properties such as multiplicity and transverse size and their seasonal variations in the
context of underground measurements in coincidence with a surface detector which fixes the
primary cosmic-ray energy.
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