Simulations of Cosmic Ray Ensembles originated nearby the Sun
July 08, 2021
Cosmic Ray Ensembles (CRE) are yet not observed groups of cosmic rays with a common primary interaction vertex or the same parent particle. One of the processes capable of initiating identifiable CRE is an interaction of an ultra-high energy (UHE) photon with the solar magnetic field which results in an electron pair production and the subsequent synchrotron radiation. The resultant electromagnetic cascade forms a very characteristic line-like front of a very small width ($\sim$ meters), stretching from tens of thousands to even many millions of kilometers. In this contribution we present the results of applying a toy model to simulate detections of such CRE at the ground level with an array of ideal detectors of different dimensions. The adopted approach allows us to assess the CRE detection feasibility for a specific configuration of a detector array. The process of initiation and propagation of an electromagnetic cascade originated from an UHE photon passing near the Sun, as well as the resultant particle distribution on ground, were simulated using the CORSIKA program with the PRESHOWER option, both modified accordingly. The studied scenario results in photons forming a cascade that extends even over tens of millions of kilometers when it arrives at the top of the Earth's atmosphere, and the photon energies span practically the whole cosmic ray energy spectrum. The topology of the signal consists of very extended CRE shapes, and the characteristic, very much elongated disk-shape of the particle distribution on ground illustrates the potential for identification of CRE of this type.
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