Study of water Cherenkov detector designs for the SWGO experiment
F. Bisconti*, A. Chiavassa on behalf of the SWGO collaboration
July 29, 2021
March 18, 2022
The Southern Wide-field Gamma-ray Observatory (SWGO) is a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray detector under development to reach a full sky coverage together with the current HAWC and LHAASO experiments in the northern hemisphere. It will complement the observation of transient and variable multi-wavelength and multi-messenger phenomena, offering moreover the possibility to access the Galactic Centre. One of the possible SWGO configurations consists of an array of water Cherenkov tanks, with a high fill-factor inner array and a low-density outer array, covering an overall area of one order of magnitude larger than HAWC. To reach a high detection efficiency and discrimination capability between gamma-ray and hadronic air showers, various tank designs were studied. Double-layer tanks with several sizes, shapes and number of photomultiplier tubes have been considered. Single-particle simulations have been performed to study the tank response, using muons, electrons, and gamma-rays with energies typical of extensive air showers particles, entering the tanks with zenith angles from 0 to 60 degrees. The tank response was evaluated considering the particle detection efficiency, the number of photoelectrons produced by the photomultiplier tubes, and the time resolution of the measurement of the first photon. The study allowed to compare the performance of tanks with circular and square base, to understand which design optimizes the performance of the array. The method used in the study and the results will be discussed in this paper.
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