Color superconductivity in a small box: a complex Langevin study
May 16, 2022
It is expected that the color superconductivity (CSC) phase appears in QCD at low temperature and high density. On the basis of the lattice perturbation theory, a possible parameter region in which the CSC occurs has been predicted. In this work, we perform complex Langevin simulation on an $8^3\times 128$ lattice using four-flavor staggered fermions. We find, in particular, that the quark number has plateaux with respect to the chemical potential similar to our previous study, indicating the formation of the Fermi sphere. A diquark-antidiquark operator, which is an order parameter of color superconductivity, is formulated on the lattice using the U(1) noise. Our result for this operator is found to fluctuate violently when the Fermi surface coincides with the energy levels of quarks. We also discuss partial restoration of the chiral symmetry at high density.
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