Development, construction and qualification tests of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter mechanical structures
March 31, 2022
The “muon-to-electron conversion” (Mu2e) experiment at Fermilab will search for the Charged Lepton Flavour Violating neutrino-less coherent conversion of a muon into an electron in the field of an aluminum nucleus. The observation of this process would be the unambiguous evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. Mu2e detectors comprise a straw-tracker, an electromagnetic calorimeter and an external veto for cosmic rays. The calorimeter provides excellent electron identification, complementary information to aid pattern recognition and track reconstruction, and a fast calorimetric online trigger. The detector has been designed as a state-of-the-art crystal calorimeter and employs 1340 pure Cesium Iodide (CsI) crystals readout by UV-extended silicon photosensors and fast front-end and digitization electronics. A design consisting of two identical annular matrices (named “disks”) positioned at the relative distance of 70 cm downstream the aluminum target along the muon beamline satisfies the Mu2e physics requirements.
The hostile Mu2e operational conditions, in terms of radiation levels (total ionizing dose of 12 krad and a neutron fluence of 5x1010 n/cm2 @ 1 MeVeq (Si)/y), magnetic field intensity (1 T) and vacuum level (10^-4 Torr) have posed tight constraints on the design of the detector mechanical structures and materials choice. The support structure of the two 670 crystal matrices employs two aluminum hollow rings and parts made of open-cell vacuum-compatible carbon fiber. The photosensors and service front-end electronics for each crystal are assembled in a unique mechanical unit inserted in a machined copper holder. The 670 units are supported by a machined plate made of vacuum-compatible plastic material. The plate also integrates the cooling system made of a network of copper lines flowing a low temperature radiation-hard fluid and placed in thermal contact with the copper holders to constitute a low resistance thermal bridge. The data acquisition electronics is hosted in aluminum custom crates positioned on the external lateral surface of the two disks. The crates also integrate the electronics cooling system as lines running in parallel to the front-end system.
In this talk we will review the constraints on the calorimeter mechanical structures design, the development from the conceptual design to the specifications of all the structural components, including the mechanical and thermal simulations that have determined the materials and technological choices and the specifications of the cooling station, the status of components production, the components quality assurance tests, the detector assembly procedures, and the procedures for detector transportation and installation in the experimental area. We will also review the lessons learnt from Mu2e to inform the design of the upgraded Mu2e-II detector.
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