Atmospheric muon fluxes at sub-orbital neutrino detectors
July 25, 2023
Very-high-energy and ultra-high-energy neutrinos are messengers of energetic sources in the universe. Sub-orbital and satellite-based neutrino telescopes employ detectors of the atmospheric Cherenkov emission from extensive air showers (EASs) generated by charged particles. These Cherenkov detectors can be pointed below or above the Earth's limb. Cherenkov emissions produced from directions below the limb are from upward-going EASs produced in the atmosphere sourced by Earth-skimming neutrinos. When the Cherenkov telescope is pointed slightly above the Earth's limb, signals from EASs are initiated by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. For sub-orbital detectors, muons produced from cosmic rays in the atmosphere can directly hit the Cherenkov telescope. Using a semi-analytic technique with cascade equations for atmospheric particle fluxes, we quantify the atmospheric muon flux that reaches sub-orbital telescopes like Extreme Universe Space Observatory Super Pressure Balloon 2 (EUSO-SPB2).
We assess this potential background to the EAS signals. The calculation technique may also provide an understanding of the evolution of the muon content in individual EAS.
How to cite
Metadata are provided both in "article" format (very similar to INSPIRE) as this helps creating
very compact bibliographies which can be beneficial to authors and
readers, and in "proceeding" format
which is more detailed and complete.