PoS - Proceedings of Science
Volume 444 - 38th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2023) - Cosmic-Ray Physics (Indirect, CRI)
Using pulse-shape information for reconstructing cosmic-ray air showers and validating antenna responses with LOFAR and SKA
N. Karastathis*, S. Buitink, A. Corstanje, M. Desmet, H. Falcke, B.M. Hare, J.R. Hörandel, T. Huege, V.B. Jhansi, G. Krampah, P. Mitra, K. Mulrey, B. Neijzen, A. Nelles, H. Pandya, O. Scholten, K. Terveer, S. Thoudam, G. Trinh and S. ter Veen
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Pre-published on: August 18, 2023
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The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is capable of measuring extensive air showers through their
radio emission in the frequency range of 30–80 MHz, while the Square Kilometer Array (SKA)
will be able to expand this range to 50–350 MHz. A very important characteristic of cosmic rays
is the mass of the primary particle, which is associated with the atmospheric depth of the shower
maximum (𝑋max). The standard 𝑋max reconstruction procedure with LOFAR involves the use of
a library of CORSIKA/CoREAS simulations for a specific measured event and uses the energy
deposited to the ground in terms of radio fluence. In this study, to extract information about shower
development, not only the energy fluence is considered but the possibility of using information
from the pulse shape is investigated in both frequency ranges (30–80 MHz and 50–350 MHz).
The study of the pulse shape through the pulse agreement of measured data and simulations also
provides a way to diagnose the proper functioning of individual LOFAR dipoles.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22323/1.444.0487
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