PoS - Proceedings of Science
Volume 449 - The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP2023) - T05 Ultra-Relativistic Nuclear Collisions
Investigating collective effects in small collision systems using PYTHIA8 and EPOS4 simulations
C.D. Brandibur, A. Danu, A.F. Dobrin and A. Manea*
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Pre-published on: February 29, 2024
Published on: March 21, 2024
Studies have yielded strong evidence that a deconfined state of quarks and gluons, the quark--gluon plasma, is created in heavy-ion collisions. This hot and dense matter exhibits almost zero friction and a strong collective behaviour. An unexpected collective behaviour has also been observed in small collision systems whose origin is still not understood.

The second and third order Fourier coefficients are reported from EPOS4 simulations of pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13.6$ TeV. The second and third harmonic two-particle cumulants, denoted as $c_{2}\{2\}$ and $c_{3}\{2\}$, respectively, depend on charged-particle multiplicity and $|\Delta\eta|$ gap placed to suppress the contribution from few-particle correlations. The $c_{2}\{2\}$ with $|\Delta\eta|$ gap is positive and decreases with multiplicity, while the $c_{3}\{2\}$ with $|\Delta\eta|$ gap is negative and increases with multiplicity. The second and third harmonic four-particle cumulants are consistent with zero over almost the entire multiplicity range which is expected for Gaussian fluctuations. The second-order Fourier coefficient of $\pi^{\pm}$, ${\rm K}^{\pm}$, $\rm p+\rm\overline{p}$, $\Lambda$+$\overline{\Lambda}$, ${\rm K}^{\rm 0}_{\rm S}$, and $\Xi^{-}$+$\overline{\Xi}^{+}$ obtained using the scalar product method is mass-ordered, being more pronounced when a large $|\Delta\eta|$ gap is employed.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22323/1.449.0203
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