High granularity radiation sensors readout by custom integrated circuits play a fundamental role in
modern particle and nuclear physics experiments. The performance improvements made possible
by these systems have been recognized also in other domains, such as astrophysics, medical
imaging and radiation dosimetry, to name just a few. Custom integrated circuits will be of primary
interest for the upgrades of the LHC detectors, where new challenging requirements have to be
met, as well as for other experimental facilities planned or under construction worldwide. In the
past years, the microelectronic industry has made impressive progress and the trend is expected
to continue in the future, giving the chip designers new opportunities to address ambitious goals.
In this paper, emerging needs of integrated electronics for particle detectors are discussed and the
evolution of ASIC fabrication technologies is briefly reviewed. The impact of these advancements
on the design of next generation systems is analyzed.