PoS - Proceedings of Science
Volume 395 - 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2021) - GAI - Gamma Ray Indirect
Multi-messenger characterization of Mrk501 during historically low X-ray and gamma-ray activity
Presented by L. Heckmann*, D. Paneque, S. Gasparyan, M. Cerruti, N. Sahakyan and A. Arbet Engels  on behalf of  The MAGIC Collaboration,  The Fermi-LAT Collaboration, V.A. Acciari, S. Ansoldi, L.A. Antonelli, M. Artero, K. Asano, D. Baack, A. Babic, A. Baquero, U. Barres de Almeida, J.A. Barrio, I. Batković, J. Becerra Gonzalez, W. Bednarek, L. Bellizzi, E. Bernardini, M.I. Bernardos, A. Berti, J. Besenrieder, W. Bhattacharyya, C. Bigongiari, A. Biland, O. Blanch, H. Bökenkamp, G. Bonnoli, Z. Bosnjak, G. Busetto, R. Carosi, G. Ceribella, Y. Chai, A.A. Chilingarian, S. Cikota, S.M. Colak, E. Colombo, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, G. D'Amico, V. D'Elia, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, B. De Lotto, M. Delfino, J. Delgado, C. Delgado Mendez, D. Depaoli, F. Di Pierro, L. Di Venere, E. Do Souto Espiñeira, D. Dominis Prester, A. Donini, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, V. Fallah Ramazani, A. Fattorini, M.V. Fonseca, L. Font, C. Fruck, S. Fukami, Y. Fukazawa, R.J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, M. Gaug, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, P. Gliwny, N. Godinovic, D. Green, J.G. Green, D. Hadasch, A. Hahn, J. Herrera, J. Hoang, D. Hrupec, M. Hütten, T. Inada, K. Ishio, Y. Iwamura, I. Jiménez Martínez, J. Jormanainen, L. Jouvin, M. Karjalainen, D. Kerszberg, Y. Kobayashi, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, A. Lamastra, D. Lelas, F. Leone, E. Lindfors, L. Linhoff, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, R. Lopez-Coto, M. López-Moya, A. López-Oramas, S. Loporchio, B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga, C. Maggio, P. Majumdar, M. Makariev, M. Mallamaci, G. Maneva, M. Manganaro, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martinez, D. Mazin, S. Menchiari, S. Mender, S. Mićanović, D. Miceli, T. Miener, J.M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, E. Molina, A. Moralejo, D. Morcuende, V. Moreno, E. Moretti, T. Nakamori, L. Nava, V. Neustroev, C. Nigro, K. Nilsson, K. Nishijima, K. Noda, S. Nozaki, Y. Ohtani, T. Oka, J. Otero-Santos, S. Paiano, M. Palatiello, R. Paoletti, J.M. Paredes, L. Pavletić, P. Peñil, M. Persic, M. Pihet, P.G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, C. Priyadarshi, I. Puljak, W. Rhode, M. Ribó, J. Rico, C. Righi, A. Rugliancich, T. Saito, S. Sakurai, K. Satalecka, F.G. Saturni, B. Schleicher, K. Schmidt, T. Schweizer, J. Sitarek, I. Šnidarić, D. Sobczyńska, A. Spolon, A. Stamerra, J. Strišković, D. Strom, M.C. Strzys, Y. Suda, T. Surić, M. Takahashi, R. Takeishi, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzic, M. Teshima, L. Tosti, S. Truzzi, A. Tutone, S. Ubach, J. van Scherpenberg, G. Vanzo, M. Vazquez Acosta, S. Ventura, V. Verguilov, C.f. Vigorito, V. Vitale, I. Vovk, M. Will, C. Wunderlich, T. Yamamoto and D. Zarićet al. (click to show)
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Pre-published on: July 28, 2021
Published on: March 18, 2022
Blazars, together with other active galactic nuclei, are the most luminous persistent sources in
our universe; and therefore a prime candidate for very-high-energy (>0.2 TeV, VHE) gamma-ray
observations. For the two MAGIC telescopes, the Mrk501 galaxy is among the brightest observed
blazars due to its proximity.
We report a multi-wavelength and multi-messenger study of Mrk501 with data from 2017 to
2020, when Mrk501 showed a VHE flux typically below 10% that of the Crab Nebula. During
this time, we performed three long observations with NuSTAR, which characterized the hard
X-ray emission during three different low-activity flux levels. This Mrk501 dataset provided the
unprecedented opportunity to study multi-wavelength variability and correlations with sensitive
instruments during historically low X-ray and VHE gamma-ray emission (below 5% of the Crab
Nebula flux in the VHE range), which could be considered as the baseline emission of Mrk501.
We complemented the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of the identified historically
low X-ray and VHE gamma-ray flux with data published by IceCube, in order to evaluate the
potential existence of a hadronic component that is stable (or slowly variable), and less visible
than the leptonic component that may dominate the emission during typical and flaring activity. In
this contribution, we will also describe the evolution of the broadband SED comparing different
theoretical scenarios.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22323/1.395.0844
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