Confinement, Instanton-dyons and Monopoles
September 12, 2019
September 26, 2019
Confinement in QCD vacuum has been traditionally explained in terms of monopoles, and now quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions is described as a dual plasma containing as quasiparticles not only quarks and gluons but also magnetic monopoles, dominating the ensemble near Tc. Chiral symmetry breaking was traditionally described in terms of instantons. At finite temperatures the nonzero Polyakov line VEV splits them into instanton-dyons. The semiclassical ensemble of those was shown to describe well both the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. Furthermore, the semiclassical theory describes multiple phase transitions of Roberge-Weiss type, when periodicity phases of fermions cross the holonomy phases. The interrelation of monopoles and instanton-dyons is explained in terms of the so called Poisson duality between them: both describe the same nonperturbative phenomena and lead to the same partition function. However the QCD monopoles have action S ∼ log(1/g2) and thus are not classical fields.
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